NOBEL PRIZE: The Nobel Prizes are given under the will of Alfred Bernhard Nobel, who died in 1896. He was a Swedish chemist and engineer. He discovered Nitroglycerine and its use in the manufacture of dynamite. Nobel Prizes are given each year in the six fields.
- Medicine (started in 1901)
- Literature (started in 1901)
- Economics (started in1968)
The prize-awarding bodies are
- The Swedish Academy of Literature awards.
- The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The Nobel Assembly of Karolinska Chirugical (Sweden).
- The Bank of Sweden awards the prize in Economics.
- The Committee of the Norwegian Parliament.
Awarded in 1913 “because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West.”
Physics (Raman Effect)
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930 was awarded to Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman “for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him.”
HAR GOBIND KHORANA
Medicine (Genetic Code)
The Nobel Prize in Medicine 1968 was awarded to Har Gobind Khorana “for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.”
Physics (Chandrasekhar’s Limit)
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983 was awarded to Subramanyan Chandrasekhar “for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars”
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998 was awarded to Amartya Sen “for Research on fundamental problems in welfare economics. Studies of social choice, welfare measurement, and poverty.”
SIR VS NAIPAUL
The Nobel Prize in Literature 2001 was awarded to Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul “for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories.”
The Nobel Prize in Literature 2009 was awarded to Venkatraman Ramakrishnan “for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome.”
Peace (Struggle against Child Labour)
The Nobel Prize in Literature 2014 was awarded to Kailash Satyarthi “for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education.”
Economics (Welfare Economics)
The Nobel Prize in Literature 2019 was awarded Abhijit Banerjee “for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty.”