The Indian Navy has been recognised as a formidable naval force, safeguarding us from threats from the oceans/sea. Being surrounded by water on three sides, the importance of modernising the Indian Navy and equipping them with better tools and vessels cannot be overstated. This realization has led to development and/or procurement of battleships, boats and submarines. With China looking to dominate the Indian Ocean, submarines are crucial, especially in the event of a naval conflict. Submarines come with the ability to launch a torpedo attack on the enemy ship with minimum probability of damage. When used tactically along with battleships, it can be the key to disarm and dominate our enemies. Here we present all the information you need to know about Indian Navy Submarines:
We have Five classes of submarines, currently with the Navy in active service – Arihant Class, Shishumar Class, Sindhughosh Class and Kalvari Class.
These are nuclear powered ballistic missile submarines in the Indian Navy. They were developed as a part of the Advanced Technology Vessel Project (ATV), intended to develop nuclear submarines. The Government of India spent around 90,000 crores on the project for research and development of these submarines. The lead vessel of this class is the eponymous INS Arihant commissioned in August, 2016. The ATV Project began in the 1990s after the nuclear tests at Pokhran.
when submerged, thanks to a single seven-blade propeller driven by an 83 MW pressurised water reactor which uses enriched uranium as fuel. On November 11, 2003, the prototype reactor built by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) in Kalpakkam., became critical, and on September 22, 2006, it was certified operational.
Four vessels have been planned under this class. INS Arihant was launched on 26 July (Kargil Vijay Diwas) 2009 and its sea trials began on 13th December 2014. With the completion of sea trials on 23rd February 2016 , the 6000 tonne vessel was commissioned in August 2016. The Second ship in the Arihant Class has been named Arighat. The sea trials for the INS Arighat, which began in 2017, are now complete, and the ship will be commissioned in August 2022. The last two submarines codenamed S4 and S4* and a recently planned S5 will be launched soon.
The Shishumar-class submarines are diesel-electric attack submarines that are presently serving in the Indian Navy. These submarines are an Indian version of the Type 209 submarines constructed by the German yard Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) under internal title Type 1500. HDW built the first two boats in Kiel, while others were built at Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) in Mumbai, under a technology transfer arrangement. Between 1986 and 1994, the submarines were put into service. When surfaced, these submarines had a displacement of 1660 tonnes, a top speed of 22 knots (41 km/h), and a crew of 40, including eight officers.
On December 11, 1981, India and Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft inked a contract for these submarines. The arrangement planned for the construction of two submarines in West Germany, the delivery of knocked-down kits to Mazagon Dock Limited for the assembly of two further submarines, and construction and logistical training. In1984, an agreement was made for the building of two new submarines in MDL, but it was later cancelled owing to the late 1980s economic crisis. The 10th submarine squadron, stationed in Mumbai, is made up of the four submarines that were ultimately completed. The four vessels are titled INS Shishumar, INS Shankush, INS Shalki and INS Shankul respectively. The first one was commissioned on 22 September 1986 and the last one on 28 May 1994.
Sindhughosh-class submarines are diesel-electric submarines of the Kilo class that are currently in service with the Indian Navy. The Sindhughosh submarines, designated 877EKM, were developed under a contract between Russia and our Ministry of Defence as part of Project 877. The submarines have a displacement of 3,000 tonnes, can dive to a maximum depth of 300 metres, have a top speed of 18 knots, and can operate alone for 45 days with a crew of 53 people. There are six ships belonging to this class – Sindhughosh, Sindhudhvaj, Sindhuraj, Sindhuvir, Sindhuratna, Sindhukesari, Sindhukirti, Sindhuvijay, Sindhurakshak, and Sindhurashtra.
The hydro acoustic USHUS complex and the CCS-MK radio communications system have been installed on the INS Sindhuvijay. The long-awaited mid-life refurbishment of the four Kilo-class submarines, which will be carried out in Indian shipyards and is expected to cost Rs. 4,800 crore, was approved by the Defence Ministry on August 29, 2014. (4,800 million). On November 5, 2014, official Hindustan Shipyard Limited sources stated that more than 90% of the work on the seventh Sindhughosh class submarine, INS Sindhukirti, had been finished. The Ship re-entered service on May 23, 2015, after being scheduled to rejoin the fleet on March 31, 2015.
The naval exercise Malabar, which took place in 2015 between the Indian and US navies, saw the INS Sindhudhvaj and the USS City of Corpus Christi chasing each other. Sindhudhvaj was able to follow Corpus Christi and score a simulated kill without being discovered, according to media reports. The first ship Sindhughosh was commissioned on 30 April 1986 and the last ship Sindhurashtra on 19 July 2000.
The project began on October 6, 2005, When the Indian Government signed a series of contracts with Armaris for the transfer of knowledge to build six submarines at Mazagon Dock Limited, the provision of equipment and services to the French government, and the delivery of SM39 Exocet missiles to MBDA. In collaboration with Navantia, DCN International was named the primary contractor. At MDL, Armaris was in charge of supplying combat systems and technical consultants for submarine building. The total cost of the initiative was €2.4 billion. The contract contained a 30% offset provision, and the submarines were to be delivered over a five-year period beginning in 2012. Six Submarines are part of the project – INS Kalvari, INS Khanderi, INS Karanj, INS Vela, INS Vagir,and INS Vagsheer.
The Kalvari class is capable of anti-surface, anti-submarine, information gathering, mine laying, and area surveillance offensive operations over the complete spectrum of naval warfare. It measures 67.5 m (221 ft) in length, 12.3 m (40 ft) in height, 6.2 m (20 ft) in overall beam, and 5.8 m in draught (19 ft). When underwater, it can attain a top speed of 20 kn (37 km/h) and a top speed of 11 kn (20 km/h) when surfaced. When surfacing, the submarine has a range of 6,500 nautical miles (12,000 kilometres) at 8 knots (15 kilometres per hour). Each ship features four MTU 12V 396 SE84 diesel engines, 360 battery cells (750 kg each), and a quiet Permanently Magnetised Propulsion Motor. INS Kalvari, the first Submarine, was commissioned on 14 December 2017.