The tiger reserves in India are covered under the [project Tiger. Tiger reserves in India were established in 1973.it is being administrated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority. As per data, India is home to 80% tigers of the world.
In 2006, there were 1,411 tigers in India which increased to 1,706 in 2010, 2,226 in 2014 and 2,967 in 2018. Earlier, only 9 tiger reserves were covered under the NTCA. Now, 50 tiger reserves spreading across 17 states provide conservation to the Tigers.
India has played a significant role in increasing the tiger population. I have contributed a large no. of tiger populations to the total tiger count. Until now, India has designated 50 tiger reserves.
As per the report by the World Wildlife Fund and Global Tiger Forum, the number of wild tigers globally rose from 3,159 in 2010 to 3,890 in 2016.
- There are currently 50 tiger reserves in India.
- These tiger reserves are home to 80% of the tiger population.
- Initially, only 9 tiger reserves were covered under the NTCA.
- The state government has the authority to declare any area as a tiger reserve based on the recommendation of the NTCA.
- India has currently 2,967 wild tigers in its conservation.
Before moving forward to the list of the tiger reserves in India, it is better to know about the Project tiger, which is considered as the turning stone for the tiger conservatism in Indian Environment History. National Tiger Conservation Authority and Project tiger holds great value from the competitive exam perspective. So, let us know about Project Tiger.
Project Tiger (1973)
Project tiger is a programme launched in 1973 to pursue the conservation of tigers in India under the tenure of the then Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi. The project aims to maintain a viable population of Bengal tigers in their natural habitats, protect them from extinction, and preserve biologically significant areas as a natural heritage for all time, representing as closely as possible the diversity of ecosystems across the country’s tiger distribution.
The project required an intensive programme to rehabilitate and protect the habitat of the forests. The government also run Tiger Protection Force to tackle down the poachers and illegal traders who hunted down the tigers for commercial use. Programmes were run to combat the human-tiger conflicts and minimize them.
Objectives of the Project Tiger
- The first objective was to minimise the population of Bengal tigers.
- To provide a good habitat and suitable ecosystem to the tigers.
- Ensure the survival of tigers for economic, scientific, cultural, artistic, and ecological reasons.
- It focused on more patrolling and protecting the tiger’s habitat.
- The last and most important aim was to collect apt data based on field surveys, through which the right decision for the welfare of the tigers could be taken.
National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)
The project tiger is administered by the National Tiger Conservation Authority. The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) is a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change. NTCA was established in the year 2005 on the recommendation of the Tiger Task Force. It was established to manage the Project Tiger and tiger reserves in India. The committee is headed by a director, who takes final decisions on matters related to Project Tiger.
Objectives of NTCA
- It was constituted under section 38 L (1) of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
- The Headquarters of NTCA is in New Delhi.
- It has the responsibility to conduct the country level assessment of tigers, prey, co-predators and habitat every 4 years.
- This body is responsible for taking all the actions and tasks concerning the project tiger.
- The minister for Environment and Forests is the chairperson of this authority, whereas the minister of the state for Environment and Forests is the Vice-Chairperson.
The government of India has concluded MoU with neighbouring countries such as China, Bhutan, Nepal and Bangladesh to work for the welfare and conservation of tigers.
There is a total of 8 conservation units concluded by the NCTA. These units are as follows:-
- Shivalik-Terai Conservation Unit
- North-East Conservation Unit
- Sunderbans Conservation Unit
- Western Ghats Conservation Unit
- Eastern Ghats Conservation Unit
- Central India Conservation Unit
- Sariska Conservation Unit
- Kaziranga Conservation Unit
All the tiger reserves are further divided into the above conservation units. A field director with a technical assistant helps in patrolling and collecting the data, taking care of the conservation units.
The tiger reserves in India are based o the Core- Buffer Strategy, which we will discuss below:-
Core areas: All human activity is prohibited in the core zones. It is legally classified as a national park or a wildlife sanctuary. It is kept free of biotic disturbances, and forestry operations such as modest forest produce gathering, grazing, and other human disturbances are prohibited.
Buffer areas: ‘Conservation-oriented land use’ is applied to the buffer zones. They are made up of both forest and non-forest terrain. It is a multi-purpose use area with the dual goals of supplementing habitat for wild animals spilling over from the core conservation unit and giving site-specific co-developmental inputs to nearby settlements to reduce their influence on the core area.
Tiger reserve in India
As per the data by National Tiger Conservation Authority, there were only 2,967 tigers till 2018 in India. Although, it is a significant positive change in the tiger population if compared to the early years.
Below, we have provided the official list of tiger reserves in India.
|Si No.||Tiger Reserve (Year of Creation)||State||The population of tigers, 2018|
|3||Kanha (1973–74)||Madhya Pradesh||80|
|9||Sunderbans (1973–74)||West Bengal||68|
|12||Buxa (1982–83)||West Bengal||0|
|14||Namdapha (1982–83)||Arunachal Pradesh||11|
|15||Dudhwa (1987–88)||Uttar Pradesh||58|
|16||Kalakad-Mundanthurai (1988–89)||Tamil Nadu||10|
|18||Pench (1992–93)||Madhya Pradesh||43 (contiguous with Maharashtra)|
|20||Bandhavgarh (1993–94)||Madhya Pradesh||63|
|21||Panna (1994–95)||Madhya Pradesh||17|
|24||Pench (1998–99)||Maharashtra||35 (contiguous with Madhya Pradesh)|
|25||Pakke (1999–2000)||Arunachal Pradesh||7|
|27||Satpura (1999–2000)||Madhya Pradesh||26|
|28||Anamalai (2008–09)||Tamil Nadu||13|
|33||Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve (Kali) (2008–09)||Karnataka||5|
|34||Sanjay (2008–09)||Madhya Pradesh||8|
|35||Mudumalai (2007)||Tamil Nadu||103|
|39||Biligiri Ranganatha Temple (2010–11)||Karnataka||68|
|41||Sathyamangalam (2013–14)||Tamil Nadu||72|
|42||Mukandra Hills (2013–14)||Rajasthan||–|
|44||Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam (1982–83)||Andhra Pradesh||74|
|46||Pilibhit (2014)||Uttar Pradesh||65|
|50||Kamlang (2016)||Arunachal Pradesh||–|
|51||Srivilliputhur – Megamalai (2021)||Tamil Nadu||14|
|52||Ramgarh Vishdhari (2021)||Rajasthan||35|
|53||Guru Ghasidas National Park and Tomar Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary(2021)||Chattisgarh|
Important Facts about tiger reserves in India :-
- Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of tigers (526) in the age group of 1.5 years, with more than 408 big cats.
- Uttarakhand (442), Karnataka (524), Tamil Nadu (229), Maharashtra (190), Assam (167), Kerala (136) and Uttar Pradesh (117) also have significant tiger populations.
- Amangarh Tiger Reserve in Uttar Pradesh is a buffer zone of Jim Corbett National Park and may not be regarded as a separate tiger reserve.
- The biggest tiger reserve in India is Nagarjunsagar – Srisailam tiger reserve, which is situated in Telangana.
- The smallest tiger reserve is Bor Tiger Reserve, located in Maharashtra.
Here, we have discussed the project tiger and the NTCA whereas we also looked at the list of tiger Reserves in India. Currently, there are around 50 tiger reserves spread across various states in India under the project tiger, which is being administrated by the NTCA.
The ministry of environment and forests is the supreme authority for environment conservation in India. It takes all the major decisions related to the environment, wildlife and ecosystem.
Check out more such articles on the site of SSBCrackExams and tell us your queries in the comments section.